Ankidroid additions related to Science, History and Philosophy. More information about Anki can be found in this article.
A style of music composition employing two or more simultaneous, but relatively independent melodic sounds. When music is made up of people singing or playing different lines at the same time (counterpoint), it is said to be polyphonic. For example, organum is (music) a type of medieval polyphony which builds upon an existing plainsong Organum. The term attained its lasting sense during the Middle Ages in reference to a polyphonic (many-voiced) setting, in certain specific styles, of Gregorian chant.
Apocryphal describes being doubtful of authenticity, or something fictitious, fabulous, legendary or mythical. It also refers to something resembling the Apocrypha, such as the Apocryphal books of the Old Testament.
Jordan Peterson in his book 12 Rules For Life referred to an old and possibly apocryphal story about how to catch a monkey. He used it to illustrate his ideas about how sometimes, when things do not go well, it’s not the world that’s the cause. The cause is instead that which is currently most valued, subjectively and personally. Below is the extract:
‘….First, you must find a large, narrow-necked jar, just barely wide enough in diameter at the top for the monkey to put its hand inside. Then you must fill the jar part way with rocks, so its too heavy for a monkey to carry. Then you must scatter some treats, attractive to monkeys, near the jar, to attract one, and put some more inside the jar. A monkey will come along, reach into the narrow opening, and grab while the grabbing’s good. But now he won’t be able to extract his fist, now full of treats, from the too-narrow opening of the jar. Not without unclenching his hand. Not without relinquishing what he already has. And that’s just what he won’t do. The monkey-catcher can just walk over to the jar and pick up the monkey. The animal will not sacrifice the part to preserve the whole.
Something valuable, given up, ensures future prosperity. Something valuable, sacrificed, pleases the Lord….’.
The study, knowledge or science of law. In the US it means the philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning and analogy, legal systems, legal institutions, and the proper application and role of law in society. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, and the law of nations.
The English word is derived from the Latin, iurisprudentia. Iuris is the genitive form of ius meaning law, and prudentia meaning prudence (also: discretion, foresight, forethought, circumspection). It refers to the exercise of good judgment, common sense, and caution, especially in the conduct of practical matters. The word first appeared in written English in 1628, at a time when the word prudence meant knowledge of, or skill in a matter.