Ankidroid additions related to Science, History and Philosophy. More information about Anki can be found in this article.
Key Communist Theorists and Movements – History Until Present
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx are two prominent 19th-century German philosophers who are often mentioned together. That’s mainly because Hegel had a widely recognized influence on Marx. Hegel with Dialectics mentioned here before and Marx with Dialectic Materialism.
- Leninism was a political ideology of Vladimir Lenin which proposed the establishment of the dictatorship of the Proletariat led by the Revolutionary Vanguard Guard as a prelude to implementing Communism. The Proletariat is the class of wage earners possessing neither capital nor production and living by selling their labour. The policies allowed the Bolshevik Vanguard Party to realise the October Revolution in the Soviet Union in 1917.
- In the West, Herbet Marcuse published One Dimensional Man in 1964 and championed minority groups towards radical thinking. A new left movement then took shape throughout the Vietnam War and thereafter the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire led ‘Critical Pedagogy‘ which has become the benchmark for the United Nations backing of ‘Social and Emotional Learning‘ in schools and community.
- In 1989 Kimberlé Crenshaw coined the term ‘Intersectionality‘ meaning an analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person’s identity (race, class and gender) combine to create different modes of discrimination and privilege. It is the basis of Critical Race Theory and thereafter we have the Woke Movement.
Council of Nicaea
Council of Nicaea (When, What and by Whom?)
(325 AD Turkey) The council was the first ecumenical – worldwide Christian Church organised by Roman Emperor Constantine. This was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all Christendom. It’s important to add here, this was NOT to discern which books should remain in the New Testament as Dan Brown of the De Vinci Code might have many to believe. The 27 books chosen were only publicly recognised 40 years later by a member of the Council – Saint Athanasius.
The council instead were deciding in ‘what sense’ Jesus was the Son of God. There were 300 Bishops who came together for this the first of 7 ecumenical councils of early Christianity that made decisions about Theology and practical matters. Constantine had converted to Christianity in 312 and he did not want a ‘split – church’.
It was decided here that Christ was not a subordinate divinity who is less powerful than God the Father. Christ, they determined is fully equal with God. He has the same power, the same grandeur and honour as God the Father and he always existed. Despite this, Christians were insistent they weren’t polytheists (The Holy Trinity), but monotheists that God is manifested in 3 persons.
You can find a brief presentation about the Council by Theologian Bart Ehrman here.
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